Acne Pathophysiology | Acne Vulgaris (Pimples) Pathogenesis


hey everyone welcome to another medical
video in this tutorial we talk about the pathophysiology of acne water makes up
60% of our body weight fluid losses greater than 15% are usually fatal let
me ask you a question which organ prevents the Sun from absorbing all of
our body water yes it is the skin epidermis the outer layer of the skin is
somewhat waterproof due to the hard keratin layer but it isn’t enough to
beat the Sun the dermis of the skin contains sebaceous glands it secretes
waterproof sebum onto the skin’s surface can you guess what substance gives the
waterproof ability to sebum have you noticed how hard it is to remove oil
with water that’s because the lipid is so hydrophobic so there’s no wonder
sebum is full of lipids mainly the triglycerides sebaceous glands open into
hair follicles and from there sebum reached the surface of the skin sebum
also carries the dead skin cells out of the follicles everything works fine when
you are a child but when you hit puberty testosterone levels increase suddenly
unfortunately testosterone increases the sebum production but this is not enough
to produce acne there’s a protein called keratin in the skin cells some people
produce this protein excessively due to genetic predispositions
we call this hyper keratinization high keratin content in the dead skin cells
glues the dead cells to one another the mixture of high sebum and keratins block
the hair follicle giving rise to comedones ins if the camdones are protected by
the skin we notice the white lipid substance in acne that’s what we call
whiteheads but if the skin cover is lost the melanin in the comedone is oxidized
to become darker we call them the blackheads we all know too much lipid is
bad for our health but the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes doesn’t seem to
know that it grows rapidly in the lipid rich comedones the bacteria initiates an
inflammatory response and further expands the comedones when they inflame
the dermis and get filled with pus we get pustules if the inflammation expands
deep into the dermis where the nerve roots lie we call them acne cysts they
are larger than the pustules and they are painful because they are in contact
with the nerve roots and because of the heavy inflammation they often caused
scars I’ll discuss the treatment options in another video see you soon
but don’t forget to subscribe Thank you

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